Examples: Apraxia of Speech, Dysarthria, Stuttering

Apraxia

Apraxia is a motor speech disorder.

The messages from the brain to the mouth are disrupted, and the person cannot move his or her lips or tongue to the right place to say sounds correctly, even though the muscles are not weak.

 
Dysarthria (Neurological Motor Speech Impairment)

Dysarthria is a neurological motor speech impairment characterized by slow, weak, uncoordinated movements of the speech musculature.

It results in reduced speech intelligibility and reduced ability to function in communication situations, which can lead to social isolation and depression. Dysarthria can be congenital (e.g., cerebral palsy) or acquired (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, brain injury, stroke).

 
Stuttering

Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It begins during childhood and, in some cases, lasts throughout life.

The disorder is characterized by disruptions in the production of speech sounds, also called “disfluencies.” Most people produce brief disfluencies from time to time. For instance, some words are repeated and others are preceded by “um” or “uh.”

Source: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

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