Examples: ADHD, Dyslexia, Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, Executive Functioning Issues

ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder)

ADHD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is a biological condition that makes it hard for many individuals to sit still and concentrate.

There are various areas of the brain that control one’s ability to concentrate and “hit the brakes.” These areas may be less active and develop more slowly in those with ADHD. This can upset the balance of certain brain chemicals. It can also explain why some may have more trouble socially than their peers. A person does not outgrow ADHD.

The symptoms may change over time, but ADHD is a lifelong condition.


Dyslexia is a brain-based condition. It causes difficulty reading, spelling, writing and sometimes speaking.

In people with dyslexia, the brain has trouble recognizing or processing certain types of information. This can include matching letter sounds and symbols (such as the letter b making the “buh” sound) and blending them together to make words. Some people with dyslexia do not have trouble sounding out words, but they may struggle to understand what they read.

It can be very hard for people with dyslexia to read in a way that is automatic, or seemingly without effort.


Dyscalculia is a brain-based condition that makes it hard to make sense of numbers and math concepts.

People with dyscalculia can’t grasp basic number concepts. They work hard to learn and memorize basic number facts. They may know what to do in math class, but do not understand why they’re doing it. In other words, they miss the logic behind it.


Dysgraphia is the term used to describe a wide range of writing challenges, but is often used to refer to handwriting issues such as letter or word formation and other technical aspects of writing.

Executive Functioning Issues

Executive Functions consist of several mental skills that help the brain organize and act on information.

These skills enable people to plan, organize, remember things, prioritize, pay attention and get started on tasks. They also help people use information and experiences from the past to solve current problems.

Source: Understood.org

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